Goal and Objectives
Physiology is the study of how the body works. The systems of the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, neural, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems are examined using approaches ranging from molecular and cellular to whole-organism levels.
The goal of the teachingphysiology to the students aims at imparting detailed and complete knowledge of the normal functioning of the body and understanding the physiological basis of health and disease.
At the end of the course student shall be able to
(1) Understand the normal functions of all organ systems and their interactions.
(2) Assess relative contributions of each organ system in maintenance of milieu interior.
(3) Describe physiological responses and adaptations to environmental stress.
(4) List the physiological principles underlying pathogenesis and treatment of disease.
At the end of course the student shall be able to
(1) Conduct experiments/investigations designedfor studyof physiological phenomenon
(2) To interpret expt. /investigations data and
(3) To distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests done in lab.
At the end of the course the student shall be able to acquire an integrated knowledge of organ, structure, function and its regulatory mechanism and apply the knowledge in understanding of disease and its treatment
Head of Department’s Message
Physiology is a very interesting subject for medical students and also for others. It is a mother of many branches in Medical Science. If a student understands depth of knowledge in physiology, it is going to be very useful in understanding clinical subjects precisely.
Recently there is a burst of knowledge, discoveries and innovations in this field internationally. So we have to keep ourselves updated constantly in this field.
Our department is one of the biggest physiology departments in the country with 10 P.G. admissions per year along with 250 undergraduate admissions annually since many years. We welcome you all in our department and have a look inside physiology!!
Facilities in Department
Details of facilities to carry out theory and practical classes for UG students
Details of facilities to carry out additional classes and practicals at PG level.
Details of laboratories and other facilities to carry out research work.
Facilities available for training in Applied Physiology:
Facilities available for training in other selected subjects:-
PG students in our department are posted during 2nd year residency in the following departments:
General Medicine, Emergency medicine, Blood bank and Pathology department, Ophthalmology,Biochemistry department, Cardiology department, Paraplegia Department, ENT department,Psychiatry department, Cancer hospital, Kidney institute, PSM department.
1) For Indian nationals- As per MCI Rules.
2) NRI – Not Applicable
1) FIRST YEAR B. PHYSIOTHERAPY
Teaching physiology to 1st year physiotherapy students. At the end of the course, an examination comprising of theory is conducted which the student must clear with a minimum pass percentage of 50%
2) MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNICIAN TRAINING COURSE
The Department of Medical Education and Research, Health and Family welfare Department, Government of Gujarat conducts the M.L.T. Training course. The duration of the course is one year. Minimum qualification required for this course is Bachelor of Science. At the end of the course, an examination comprising of theory and practical is conducted, which the student must clear with a minimum pass percentage of 50%.
3) FIRST YEAR B. ORTHOTICS AND PROSTHETICS
The duration of the course is one year. Minimum qualification required for the course is 10+2. At the end of the course, an examination comprising of theory and practical is conducted, which the student must clear with a minimum pass percentage of 50%.
4) FIRST YEAR B. Sc NURSING.
Teaching physiology to 1st year Bsc. Nursing students. At the end of the course, an examination comprising of theory is conducted which the student must clear with a minimum pass percentage of 50%.
5) NEUROPHYSICIAN TECHNICIAN TRAINING COURSE
Physiology is also taught to 1st year Neurophysician technician students.
A. Systemic Physiology:
a. Introduction to Physiology
b. Historical aspects referring to various doctrines
c. Scope of Physiology
d. Basic controlling mechanisms of body and feed back gains
f. Evolution of various systems
a. Structure of the cell
b. Functions of cells,
c. Cell growth, division & differentiation, variations,
d. Intercellular communication,
a. Transport across the membrane, Donnan equilibrium, Osmosis, Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Active transport,
b. Surface tension
c. Adsorption, Colloids, Suspensoids, True solution,
e. Ventilation through airways,
f. Bioelectrical phenomena, Resting Membrane Potential, Equilibrium potential, Nernst and Goldmann equations.
g. Action potential in various tissues with their ionic basis,
h. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope and recording of Action Potential in various tissues i.e. ERG, ECG, EMG, EOG, EEG, Nerve conduction velocity,
i. Patch clamp technique, Voltage gated technique
a. Composition of blood
b. Properties of blood,
c. Plasma proteins,
d. Formed elements of blood,
f. Functions of blood cells, counting and its importance of blood cells, Blood clotting,
g. Blood groups-importance, type, estimation, transmission,
h. Reticulo-endothelial system,
i. Lymphatic system, lymph composition and function,
j. Immunity, AMI, CMI, Active & Passive Immunity,
k. Anaemia, Poly-cythemia,
l. Bleeding disorders,
m. Blood transfusion,
n. Blood storage & banking, bone marrow,
o. Hemoglobin-chemistry, type, derivatives, synthesis, fate, Jaundice,
p. Organ transplantation, Graft rejection etc.
a. Physiological Anatomy,
b. Gastrointestinal secretions with composition,
functions, mechanism of secretion,regulation i.e., salivary, gastric, pancreatic-exocrine, succus entericus,
c. Bile, entero-hepatic circulation, gall bladder.
d. Gastro intestinal tract movements-oesophagus, deglutition, ,
e. Stomach, gastric emptying,
f. Small and large intestine, defeacation, gastrointestinal reflexes,
g. Gastrointestinal hormones,
h. Faeces. Gastric function tests, liver function tests,
a. Physiological anatomy. Broncho-pulmonary segments,
b. Respiratory and non respiratory functions of lung,
c. Mechanics of breathing: Muscles of respiration, rib movements, compliance, Intra-pleural and intra pulmonary pressures, surfactants.
d. Spirometry, Pulmonary function tests,
e. Clinical examination of respiratory system,
f. Transport of blood gases,
g. Neural and chemical regulation of respiration.
h. Artificial respiration, periodic breathing, respiratory rate and variations, dyspnoea, dyspnoeic index, orthopnea, asphyxia,
i. hypoxia, hypercarbia, Oxygen therapy, Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, Oxygen poisoning,
j. High altitude physiology: mountaineering, Aviation physiology, space physiology. Underwater physiology,
k. Occupational hazards and respiratory system
a. Physiological anatomy,
b. Functions of kidney,
c. Glomerular filtration ,
d. Tubular secretion
e. Tubular reabsorption, formation of urine,
f. Juxta-glomerular apparatus,
g. Concentration and dilution of Urine
h. Role of kidney in acid base balance,
i. Renal function tests,
j. Clearance tests,
k. Maintenance of blood volume, blood pressure, tonicity, electrolytes by kidney.
l. Structure and functions of skin,
m. Body temperature: importance of temp. regulation, measurement,
n. Mechanism of heat loss and heat generation, temperature regulating center.
o. Role of brown fat, hypo and hyperthermia, its importance and effects on the body.
a. Physiological anatomy, macroscopic and microscopic, E.M structure of sarcomere,
b. Composition and functions of muscle
c. Excitable tissue, stimulation, Resting Membrane Potential, role of Na-K pump Generation of local response( electrotonus) and action potential,
d. Characteristic of action potential and its properties,
e. Ionic basis of action potential,compound action potential
f. Properties of skeletal muscles
g. Properties of smooth muscles,
h. Comparison of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles,
i. Structure and classification of nerve
j. Properties of nerve fiber
k. Mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse, Nerve metabolism,
l. Mechanism of contraction of muscle,
m. Neuromuscular transmission,
n. Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical changes during muscle contraction,
o. Effect of exercise, oxygen debt
p. Myelination and degeneration and regeneration of nerve fiber.
a. Characteristics and differences from somatic nervous system,
b. Differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system,
c. Distribution and action of sympathetic
d. Distribution and parasympathetic supply,
e. Autonomic neurotransmission,
f. Autonomic function tests, Biofeedback studies, polygraph tests.
b. Cerebrospinal fluids(properties, composition, function, mechanism of secretion, examination)
c. Blood brain barrier, blood CSF barrier, circumventricular organs, Neuroglia, Receptors: classification, properties, mechanism of stimulation,
d. Synapses: types, structure, properties and synaptic transmission,
e. Reflexes: type, properties, reflex arc,
f. Stretch reflex, withdrawal reflex, inverse stretch reflex, crossed extensor reflex, lengthening reaction,
g. Regulation of muscle tone and posture,
h. Muscle spindle,
i. Pontine medial gamma facilitatory and medullary lateral gamma inhibitory pathways, plastic and spastic type rigidity(cogwheel, clasp-knife, lead pipe)(decerebrate: classical and ischemic type, decorticate rigidity) ,
j. Postural reflexes, spinal cord, anatomy, section study ,
k. Ascending (Dorsolateral-lemniscal system and antero-lateral system)
l. Descending tracts (Medial and lateral motor system),
m. Spinal reflexes, study of spinal reflexes, hemisection and transection of spinal cord, spinal shock,
n. Pathway of touch, Pressure, vibration
o. Thalamus (nuclei, connections, functions and disorders),
p. Cerebral cortex, primary (somatosensory, visual, auditory, motor), secondary(somatosensory, visual auditory, premotor, supplemental motor), association(parieto-occipito-temporal, prefrontal and limbic), handedness, dominant brain(Categorical and representational),functions, disorders,
q. Cerebellum: Gross and microscopic anatomy, physiological divisions.
r. Basal ganglia :nuclei, connections, functions and disorders,
s. Hypothalamus :nuclei, connections, functions and disorders,
t. Limbic system, importance’s, parts included, disorders and connections.
u. Reticular formation, RAS, EEG
v. Sleep, REM and NREM sleep, theories of sleep,
w. Pyramidal tract and upper motor neurone lesion
x. Extra pyramidal tract and lower motor neurone lesions Non-auditory labyrinth. Physiology of speech.
y. Memory, learning motivation and clinical examination of CNS
a. Structure and functions of various endocrine organs. Types, mechanism of action of hormone,
b. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, and anterior pituitary hormones,
c. Posterior pituitary hormones
d. Hormones of thyroid gland,
e. Parathyroid gland and calcium & phosphorous metabolism
f. Adrenal cortex- Glucocorticoids
g. Adrenal cortex-Mineralocorticoids and Na & K & Blood volume balance
h. Adrenal medulla,
i. Endocrine pancreas (their synthesis, actions, mechanism of secretion, mechanism of regulation, disorders and tests for diagnosis),
a. Primary and secondary sex characters. Sex differentiation, Puberty and adolescence
b. Male and female sexual act,
c. Andrology-physiology of testes. Spermatogenesis, blood testes barrier,
d. Actions of testesterone
e. Actions of Oestrogen and Progesterone
f. Menstruation, Menarche, Menopause, menstrual disorders
g. Ovulation, Corpus luteum, Fertilization and formation of the germinal layers.
h. Formation and role of placenta.
i. Mammary glands and lactation.
j. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests
k. Principles of contraception and fertility control. Mammary glands and lactation.
l. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests
1. Structure of eye, eye as camera and function of various parts.
2. Refraction, refractory index, refractory power and optics of eye
3. Refractory media, concept of reduced eye,
4. Refractory errors,
5. Nutrition of eye and intra-ocular pressure, aqueoushumor. formation and drainage, field of vision
6. Mechanism of accommodation.
7. Errors of visual pathway
8. Visual perception
9. Ocular reflexes. Muscles of eye and eye movements.
10. Color vision and colour blindness
11. Binocular vision after images.
12. Photochemistry of vision, dark and light adaptation,
1. Actions of Oestrogen and Progesterone
2. Menstruation, Menarche, Menopause, menstrual disorders
3. Ovulation, Corpus luteum, Fertilization and formation of the germinal layers.
4. Formation and role of placenta.
5. Mammary glands and lactation.
6. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Pregnancy tests
7. Principles of contraception and fertility control.
a. Physiological anatomy, Otolith organs of macula and saccule, Semicircular canals
b. Mechanism of stimulation.
c. Role of vestibular nuclei, VSR,VOR, motion sickness, vestibular function tests
1. Introducing use of various instruments in the laboratory
2. types of circuits. Use of stimulator, pithing, smoking, varnishing
3. Muscle nerve preparation. Dissection and recording of Simple muscle twitch.
4. Effects of Temperature
5. Effect of free and after load.
6. Effect of strength of stimulus
7. study of two successive stimuli
8. Effect of frequent stimuli
9. Demonstration of phenomena of fatigue
10. Study of conduction velocity of nerve
11. Normal cardiogram and Effect of temperature
12. Study of properties of cardiac muscle
13. Effect of Stannius ligature I & II, heart-block(stannius ligatures).
14. Effect of simulation of vagus and crescent on cardiac contraction.
15. Study of effect of drug and identification of same
16. Perfusion of amphibian heart and
17. Effect of ions and drugs of physiological importance.
18. Decerebrate and spinal frog.
1. Total W.B.C. Count.
2. Differential W.B.C. count.
3. Total R.B.C. Count.
4. Hb Estimation.
5. P.C.V. & Blood indices.
7. Bleeding time and clotting time.
8. Haemin crystals.
9. Study of microscope
10. Study of Peripheral smear
1. History taking and general examination.
2. Examination of cardiovascular system.
3. Measuring B.P. effect of posture, exercise, stress.
4. Examination of pulse.
5. Cardiac efficiency tests.
6. Examination of respiratory systems.
8. Resuscitation: artificial respiration.
9. Closed thorax, cardiac massage.
10. Respiratory efficiency test
11. Examination of reflexes-superficial and deep.
12. Examination of motor systems
13. Examination of sensory system perimetry.
14. Examination of cranial nerves.
15. Examination of alimentary system.
16. Examination of higher functions.
17. Visual acuity, Auditory tests.
18. Tests for sensation of taste and smell.
19. Recording of body temperature.
1. Factors affecting muscular contraction, Two successive stimuli, Multiple stimuli, fatigue, temperature.
2. Velocity of nerve impulse.
3. Effect of drugs on heart - pilocarpine, acetylcholine, adrenaline, nicotine, atropine.
4. Properties of cardiac muscle.
5. Perfusion of blood vessels.
6. Bone marrow smear.
7. Diameter of R.B.C., Price-Jones' Curve.
8. Reflex time and reaction time.
10. Phonocardiography and plethysmography.
11. Specific Gravity and platelet count.
12. Osmotic Fragility and reticulocyte count.
14. Pregnancy tests.
17. Determination of blood volume in experimental animals.
18. Recording of movements of isolated loop of mammalian intestine and effect of drugs.
19. Mammalian blood pressure and respiration recording and factors influencing them.
Practicals Post Graduates:
(a) Amphibian practicals
(c) Applied and Clinical Physiology
.(d) Mammalian Experiments.
(e) Biochemistry experiments:
Clinical rotation to the following departments as a part of curriculum.
1. It is required to pass theory and practical exam separately. At the end of completion of three years of residency.i.e. failing in any head means to reappear for both theory and practical exam after 6 months.
2. Total Marks 1000
Theory 400, Practical 600
3. Theory: Each Of 100 Marks
Paper 1: (History of Physiology & Comparative Physiology)
Paper 2: (Bio-chemistry & Metabolism)
Paper 3: (Applied & General Physiology)
Paper 4: (Modern Trends & Recent Advances)
2 long cases of 300 marks (total)
4 short cases of 150 Marks (total)
Microteaching of 50 marks
Viva of 100 Marks
Total 600 marks
1. It is required to pass theory and practical exam separately. i.e. failing in any head means to reappear for both theory and practical exam after 2 months and then with the next batch
2. Total 200 Marks Exam.(140 Theory & 60 Practical)
3. Theory (Total 140)
a. Paper I (50 marks)
Cell physiology,General physiology, Biophysics, Physiology of Blood, Immunity, Cardiovascular physiology, Excretory physiology,Respiratory physiology, Exercise physiology, underwater physiology, high altitude physiology.
b. Paper II (50 Marks)
Muscle and Nerve Physiology, Endocrine Physiology, Gastrointestinal physiology, Reproductive physiology, Autonomic nervous system, Special senses, Central nervous system physiology.
Practical (Total 60)
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY SERVICES
TMT and Polygraph Lab
Equipments: 1. Computerised TMT machine 2. Multichannel polygraph
Exercise Stress Test facility for patients from Civil Hospital has been started of late for diagnosing Stress induced Ischemia, so that the patients can receive further management for the same.
Polygraph facility for studying Heart Rate Variability is also being done.
Equipments: Polysomnography machine, EEG Machine
Sleep study is carried out on subjects to diagnose Obstructive Sleep Apnea and other sleep related ailments.
Equipments: EMG-NCV-EP machine
We carry out Nerve conduction velocity and Electromyography routinely on patients from Civil Hospital to diagnose Neuropathies. The patients are then sent back to the respective department for further management.
Research and PFT Lab
Equipments: Computerized spirometer
Computerised spirometry is being carried out on patients to diagnose respiratory ailments.
Hypnotherapy and Yoga Lab
We have also started Hypnotherapy and Yoga lab.
Teaching Staff information
Dr Neeta Mehta
Dr. Anju S. Mehta
Dr. Jagdeep S.Dani
Dr. Chandraprakash P. Khatri
Dr. H.C. Parikh
Dr. Rachit M Joshi
Dr Basil Parmar
Dr Vaishali Patel
Dr Toral Goswami
Dr K V Raval
Dr K P Shah
Dr B V Brahmbhatt
Dr. Saurin J. Sanghavi
Dr. Amita Mevada
Dr Vijay Gopalani
Dr Paresh Prajapati
Dr. Rimpal G. Patel
Dr. Karishmabanu V. Kazi
Dr Chetna Patel
Dr Ketan Patel
Dr. Bijal K. Panchal
List of Non-teaching Staff: -
Mrs Kavita Makwana
Mr. Pankaj Shah
Store keeper cum clerk
1)CME seminar on “Pathophysiology of Stress” held on 19/02/2010
2)“CME STATE CONFERENCE IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY” on 18TH February,2012,Ahmedabad
Venue : Auditorium, B.J.Medical college, Ahmedabad
3) 1st International Conference on Basic and Applied Physiology ICON-BAP-2012 on 22nd 23rdDecember 2012
Venue : Auditorium, Nirma Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Following Research Papers are presented by faculty as well as residents in various conferences
Topic of Paper
Gender based alteration in color perception in medical students
Dr. Ketan Patel
CME State Conference In Human Physiology And Applied Physiology, 18thFeb.2012 at B.J.M.C. Ahmedabad
Relationship of Blood groups with BMI
Relationship of anthropometric adiposity indices with blood pressure in urban community of Ahmedabad
Dr. Prerna Agarwal
To study knowledge,attitude & practice of non-pharmacological measures to control Hypertension in Geriatric population
Dr. Chetna Patel
Evaluation of Pulmonary Functions in Hypertensive Patients Taking Antihypertensive Drugs
Study of distant vision in school children
Comparative study of prevalence of myopia in medical students & students of Arts Stream.
Dr. Paras Parekh
Evaluation of knowledge, attitude & practice of balanced diet in medical students
A study of effect of smoking on glycosylated hemoglobin in non diabetics
A Comparative Study of Color perception in young males and females
Dr. Gargi Panchal
Gender differences in preferences of sensory modalities of learning styles among undergraduate medical students
1st International Conference on Basic and Applied PhysiologyICON-BAP-2012”22nd 23rdDecember 2012
Cardiovascular health screening of adults residing in ahmedabad city.
Comparative evaluation of lipid profile of type II diabetic males & females
Is it PMS or it is just anaemia?
AMCMET Medical college, 2012
Gender Based correlation of BMI with Anemia in medical students
Dr. Piyush Makwana
Research Publications during last three years
Name of Article
Name of Author
Name of Journal
Variation of Autonomic function tests among young healthy males & females
Dr Anju S Mehta, Dr Geeta Nair, Dr Jagdeep Dani, Dr Shobha Naik , Dr Neha Pandya, Dr J M Jadeja
Indian journal of Applied Basic medical science
Study of Quantitative correlationship between lipid profile and severity of ischaemic heart disease in long term diabetic patient
Dr. Geeta Nair,Dr. Anju S Mehta, Dr. Jagdeep S Dani, Dr. J M Jadeja, Dr.N Dikshit Dr. Purnima J Bhatt
Volume 14 A (18)
Diabetes induced retinopathy in chronic diabetic patients
Dr. Geeta Nair,Dr. Anju S Mehta, Dr. Jagdeep S Dani, Dr. Sobha S Naik ,Dr. J M Jadeja
Effect of mild, moderate, severe anaemia on ECG
Dr. Neha Pandya,Dr. Desai Kinnar, Dr. Shobha S Naik ,Dr. Anju S Mehta,Dr. J M Jadeja
Comparative study of effect of exercise & yoga on cardio-respiratory parameters
Dr. R.A.Amin, Dr. Siddharth kulkarni, Dr.Narendra Pathak,Dr.Sadhana Joshi
Assesment of left ventricular structural and functional indices by echocardiography in relation to the haemoglobin level in 2ndtrimester of pregnancy
Dr. Dipti Thaker, Dr.V. Kariya
NJIRM 2012 3(3) July-August
Electrophysiological evaluation of peripheral nerves in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Dr. Karishmabanu Kazi, Dr. Anju Mehta, Mansur Mulla
International journal of Basic and Applied Physiology
Vol. 1, issue 1
A comparative study of Nerve conduction velocity between left & right handed subjects
Dr. Anup Patel, Dr. Anju Mehta
Cardiovascular health screening of adults residing in Ahmedabad city
Dr.S.Naik , Dr. D. Jadeja,
pg no 98-102
Comparative study of Haemoglobin concentration in hypertensive & normotensive subjects
A Study of knowledge,attitude & practice of non-pharmacological method to control hypertension in geriatric population
Dr. Chetna Patel,
Dr.S.Naik Dr.J.M.Jadeja Dr.A. Mehta
Dr. Geeta Nair
Vol.14B(17) pg no 34-42
A study of correlation between exercise,body mass index & heart rate
Dr. Chetna Patel, Dr.V. Mishra, Dr.S.Naik,
Dr. S. Dayama, Dr.J.M.Jadeja
Relationship of Anthropometric adiposity indices with blood pressure in urban community of ahmedabad
Dr. Prerna Agarwal, Dr.J.M.Jadeja Dr. Geeta Nair, Dr.A. Mehta , Dr.S.Naik, Dr. J. Dani
Leucocyte and platelet counts in anaemic & non anaemic young female
Dr. Hitesh Solanki, Dr Anita J Gojiya, Dr Rizwan Qureshi, Dr R Dixit ,Dr J
Vol.15a(20) pg no 537-539
Comparative study of prevalence of Myopia in medical students & students of Arts stream
Dr. Paras Parekh,
Dr. Meenu Jain,
Vol.15a(20) pg no 127-133
Comparative evaluation of Lipid profile of type 2 diabetic male & female
Gender difference in preference of sensory modalities of learning styles among undergraduate medical students
Dr. Mitesh Sinha,
Comparison of postpartum stress following uneventful vaginal delivery & elective c-section